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More precisely, they are not inherently more beautiful than other shapes, configurations, patterns and scenes. Similarly, we have evolved to find snakes and spiders slightly scary. We have evolved to have a natural fear of heights.
We have evolved to enjoy the taste of nutritious, high energy foods like salmon, avocado, cheese, strawberries, and bread. We have evolved to dislike the taste of poisonous and inedible substances like battery acid, sand, and rotting meat. Evolution is driven by one mechanism: selection. Our instincts our fears, likes, and dislikes are shaped by this selection. Natural selection works in natural scenarios where life is a constant struggle to survive and reproduce. Individuals who disliked the taste of high energy foods would have starved and died before they had time to reproduce and pass on their genes.
Individuals who were not afraid of snakes might have died from poisonous snake bites before they had time to reproduce and pass on their genes. Individuals who were not afraid of heights would have slipped off cliffs and tall trees before they had time to reproduce and pass on their genes.
Individuals who enjoyed the sight of crystal clear rivers in the mountains would have had a survival advantage over people who preferred the sight of endless desert with not a tree in sight. Individuals who found old and disease-ridden members of the opposite sex more sexually appealing than young and fertile ones would have been less likely to reproduce and pass on their genes.
These are broad, simple examples. But, as a result of this kind of selection, over a long period of time the genes including instincts that become more common among the gene pool are the ones that are more likely to provide survival and reproductive advantages. Part of this selection process has shaped the way we perceive and determine beauty. Our appreciation of beauty is at its most fundamental level instinctive. The notion that evolution shaped our bodies but not our minds is irrational.
Exercise, take care of your skin and hair, try to look clean and professional. Freshen up your wardrobe a bit. Put in a little extra effort especially when it comes to hygiene and grooming. It is sensible and practical, and it feels wonderful. The Inner-beauty of a Person. It should experience and have a sweet mind to see the things as they are.
But basically you need to look good enough that you regularly brush your teeth, wash your face and take a shower. The photos were then shown in random order to two control groups: the first consisting of men and women who saw the faces flashed on a screen for milliseconds, and a second group of people who were able to look at the images for as long as they wanted.
Participants were then asked to rate each face according to how competent, attractive, likable and trustworthy they appeared. They found that greater perceived attractiveness and competence go together, that they are both indicators of social power. Beauty is studied as part of aesthetics, culture, social psychology and sociology.
Eurocentrism today has affected the beauty realm globally. The beauty standard has become Westernized and has influenced people throughout the globe. Many have altered their natural selfto reflect this image. Many beauty and advertising companies have redirected their products to support the idea of Eurocentrism. Women are represented through a Westernized lens as "blonde-haired and blue-eyed" in society are typically white women.
Importance of also looking at who isn't being westernized has biasedthe definition of beauty. When a standard of beauty is determined, anything that strays from that standard is considered a "deviation. A University of Toronto study found that the facial proportions of Jessica Alba were close tothe average of all female profiles.
The experience of "beauty" often involves an interpretation of some entity as being in balanceand harmony with nature, which may lead to feelings of attraction and emotional well-being. Because this can be a subjective experience, it is often said that "beauty is in the eye of the beholder. Ugliness is the opposite of beauty. The word "beauty" is often used as a noun to describe a beautiful woman, an excellent example of something, or a pleasing feature of something. Historically, paintings show a wide range of different standards for beauty.
However, humans who are relatively young, with smooth skin, well-proportioned bodies, and regular features, have traditionally been considered the most beautiful throughout history. A strong indicator of physical beauty is "averageness". When images of human faces are averaged together to form a composite image, they become progressively closer to the "ideal" image and are perceived as more attractive. This was first noticed in , when Francis Galton overlaid photographic composite images of the faces of vegetarians and criminals to see if there was a typical facial appearance for each.
When doing this, he noticed that the composite images were more attractive compared to any of the individualimages. Researchers have replicated the result under more controlled conditions and found that the computer-generated, mathematical average of a series of faces is rated more favorably than individual faces. It is argued that it is evolutionarily advantageous that sexual creatures are attracted to mates who possess predominantly common or average features, because it suggests the absence of genetic or acquired defects.
There is also evidence that a preference for beautiful faces emerges early in infancy, and is probably innate, and that the rules by which attractiveness is established are similar across different genders and cultures. A feature of beautiful women that has been explored by researchers is a waist—hip ratio of approximately 0. Physiologists have shown that women with hourglass figures are more fertile than other women due to higher levels of certain female hormones, a fact that may subconsciously condition males choosing mates.
However, other commentators have suggested that this preference may not be universal. For instance, in some non-Western cultures in which women have to do work such as finding food, men tend to have preferences for higher waist-hip ratios. Globally, it is argued that the predominance of white women featured in movies and advertising leads to a Eurocentric concept of beauty, breeding cultures that assign inferiority to women of color. Thus, societies and cultures across the globe struggle to diminish the longstanding internalized racism.
Exposure to the thin ideal in mass media, such as fashion magazines, directly correlates with body dissatisfaction, low self-esteem, and the development of eating disorders among female viewers. Further, the widening gap between individual body sizes and societal ideals continues to breed anxiety among young girls as they grow, highlighting the dangerous nature of beauty standards in society. A multibillion-dollar industry of Japanese Aesthetic Salons exists for this reason.
However, different nations have varying male beauty ideals; Eurocentric standards for men include tallness, leanness, and muscularity; thus, these features are idolized through American media, such as in Hollywood films and magazine covers. Eurocentrism The prevailing eurocentric concept of beauty has varying effects on different cultures. The higher status associated with fairer skin can be attributed to Asian societal history; upper-class people hired workers to perform outdoor, manual labor, cultivating a visual divide over time between lighter complexioned, wealthier families and sun tanned, darker laborers.
Western ideals in beauty and body type Much criticism has been directed at models of beauty which depend solely upon Western ideals of beauty as seen for example in the Barbie model franchise. Criticisms of Barbie are often centered around concerns that children consider Barbie a role model of beauty and will attempt to emulate her. One of the most common criticisms of Barbie is that she promotes an unrealistic idea of body image for a young woman, leading to a risk that girls who attempt to emulate her will become anorexic.
These criticisms have led to a constructive dialogue to enhance the presence of non-exclusive models of Western ideals in body type and beauty. Complaints also point to a lack of diversity in such franchises as the Barbie model of beauty in Western culture. Mattel responded to these criticisms. Starting in , it produced Hispanic dolls, and later came models from across the globe. For example, in , it introduced "Cinco de Mayo Barbie" wearing a ruffled red, white, and green dress echoing the Mexican flag.
Hispanic magazine reports that: Barbie: one of the most dramatic developments in Barbie's history came when she embracedmulti- culturalism and was released in a wide variety of native costumes, hair colors and skin tones to more closely resemble the girls who idolized her. She also has had close Hispanic friends, such as Teresa. Researchers have found that good-looking students get higher grades from their teachers than students with an ordinary appearance. Studies among teens and young adults, such as those of psychiatrist and self-help author Eva Ritvo show that skin conditions have a profound effect on social behavior and opportunity.
How much money a person earns may also be influenced by physical beauty. One study found that people low in physical attractiveness earn 5 to 10 percent less than ordinary-looking people, who in turn earn 3 to 8 percent less than those who are considered good-looking. In the market for loans, the least attractive people are less likely to get approvals, although they are less likely to default.
In the marriage market, women's looks are at a premium, but men's looks do not matter much. Conversely, being very unattractive increases the individual's propensity for criminal activity for a number of crimes ranging from burglary to theft to selling illicit drugs.
Discrimination against others based on their appearance is known as lookism. How do you look? Beauty is onlyskin-deep, as the saying goes. Or how dependable. Or anything else about their personality. Something about attractive people makes us want to watch them.
As such, beauty has power over us. But what is beauty? There is no simple answer. Researchers have, however, begun probing how beauty affects the behavior of humans and other animals. Through this work, especially, they have discovered some of the features that make an individual attractive to others. Scientists are also learning that there may be a practical side to our obsession with beauty. A pretty face may belong to a healthier person. Or it may simply be easier for our brains to process.
Skin lightening has become a common practice throughout different areas of the globe in order to fit the Eurocentric beauty standard. Many women risk their health using these products to obtain the skintone they desire. The common products used were hydroquinone and corticosteroids. Whitening products have also become popular in many areas in Asia like South Korea. With the rise of these products, research has been done to study the long term damage. The term often implies sexual attractiveness or desirability, but can also be distinct from either.
There are many factors which influence one person's attraction to another, with physical aspects being one of them. Physical attraction itself includes universal perceptions common to all human cultures such as facial symmetry, sociocultural dependent attributes and personal preferences unique to a particular individual. From research done in the United States and United Kingdom, it was found that the association between intelligence and physical attractiveness is stronger among men than among women.
Evolutionary psychologists have tried to answer why individuals who are more physically attractive should also, on average, be more intelligent, andhave put forward the notion that both general intelligence and physical attractiveness may be indicators of underlying genetic fitness. A person's physical characteristics can signal cues to fertility and health, with statistical modeling studies showing that the facial shape variables that reflect aspects of physiological health, including body fat and blood pressure, also influenceobservers' perceptions of health.
Attending to these factors increases reproductive success, furthering the representation of one's genes in the population. Men, on average, tend to be attracted to women who have a youthful appearance and exhibit features such as a symmetrical face, full breasts, full lips, and a low waist-hip ratio. Wearing makeup really DOES make you more attractive! Scientists reveal cosmetics make the majority of woman look more beautiful and younger and eye-shadow has more impact than lipstick!
Cosmetics make women appear more attractive, scientists reveal. Scientists have found that applying lipstick and eye- shadow really does make women appear more beautiful. Cosmetics were also shown to make older women appear younger than their actual age, while eye- shadow had more impact on attractiveness than lipstick. According to the latest findings, makeup makes people more attractive by amplifying three youth- related features — skin evenness, facial contrast, and facial feature size.
When I starts communication I learn they are fighting with some other problems which makes their beauty anodd. This way she can't maintain her beauty However I had attended a seminar somewhere where I meet with an ugly lady without her lefthand and she also didn't dressed well stands for a speech. As she starts her speech every body starts taking interest in her speech because of the way she spoke was outstanding. Most of the peoples was praising her and they were very much impressed.
I surprised to hear that some were talking to marry her. Even they didn't know her. Ithink majority of the peoples falls in love with her. However her speech ends with a loud clap. This is how we called beauty. The advantages they get are only skin deep too. But one has to be really capableand actually beautiful to go beyond this. There is more to being physically attractive than just good looks. Many believe that people are born beautiful or handsome—that static qualities, such as a pretty face, nice hair, or a shapely body are inherited.
You either have it or you don't. Our research, however, suggests there is another type of attractiveness—what we call dynamic physical attractiveness. What is dynamic attractiveness? Perhaps the Beatles song says it best: "Something in the way she [or he] moves attracts me like no other lover We also knew from our research that people who were emotionally expressive—people who spontaneously express emotions particularly positive emotions —were more attractive to others.
So we set out to examine how expressive style contributed to impressions that someone is physically attractive. In order to look at different types of attractiveness, we brought college students into a lab where they were photographed and videotaped while meeting people or while giving a short speech.
We then took the photos and videos, and by masking them to show only the faces, or only the bodies, and had different groups of judges rate attractiveness from only still photos of faces or bodies; another group focused only on the attractiveness of how they were dressed. Other groups of judges rated different degrees of attractiveness, including how much they liked each individual, how much they would want to be friends with them, and how attractive they seemed as a dating partner.
What we found was that in the videotaped interactions, dynamic expressive style measured by the person's emotional expressiveness and social skills predicted who was rated as physically attractive over and beyond the effects of static qualities of beauty face, body, and dress attractiveness. We have found that dynamic expressive style is a major component of what makes a person charismatic. So, what are the implications of this research? First, personality, and the expression of personality, matters.
As we all know, a person can be beautiful on the outside, but not so nice on the inside, and vice versa. Moreover, our research suggests that dynamic expressive style might compensate for lack of static physical attractiveness. In other words, there are plenty of people who are not classically beautiful or handsome, but are still very attractive to others.
Second, attractiveness can be "manipulated" to some extent. Dress, use of makeup, and keeping physically fit can affect perceptions of attractiveness. In one of our "charisma training" studies, we found that women who were trained to be better at expressing emotions and positive affect started to give greater concern to how they dressed and when they wore makeup, even though our training had not focused on that.
As they say, beauty is in the eye of the beholder, but attractiveness is complex, made up of both static and dynamic qualities, and both affect perceptions of attractiveness. Make up to enhance Physical attractiveness Physical attractiveness refers to the fact that human beings have preferences about the physical appearances of other people, particularly with reference to their facial features and body proportions. Perceptions of physical attractiveness contribute to generalized assumptions based on those attractions.
Individuals assume that when someone is beautiful, then they have many other positive attributes that make the attractive person more likeable. This is referred to as the halo effect, also known as the 'beautiful-is-good' effect. Across cultures, what is beautiful is assumed to be good; attractive people are assumed to be more extroverted, popular, and happy.
Concern for improving physical attractiveness has led many persons to consider alternatives such as cosmetic surgery. It has led scientists working with related disciplines such as computer imaging and mathematics to conduct research to suggest ways to surgically alter the distances between facial features in order to make a face conform more closely to the "agreed-upon standards of attractiveness" of an ideal face by using algorithms to suggest an alternative which still resembles the current face.
This could lead to a self-fulfilling prophecy, as, from a young age, attractive people receive moreattention that helps them develop these characteristicsIn one study, beautiful people were found to be generally happier than less beautiful or plain people, perhaps because these outgoing personality traits are linked to happiness, or perhaps because beauty led to increased economic benefits which partially explained the increased happiness.
In another study testing first impressions in 56 female and 17 male participants at University of British Columbia, personality traits of physically attractive people were identified more positively and more accurately than those who were less physically attractive. It was explained that people pay closer attention to those they find physically beautiful or attractive, and thus perceiving attractive individuals with greater distinctive accuracy.
The study believes this accuracy to be subjective to the eye of the beholder. Even though connections and confounds with other variables could not be excluded, the effects of attractiveness in this study were the same size as the ones for other demographic variables. In the west, women tend to be judged for their physical appearance over their other qualities and the pressure to engage in beauty work is much higher for women than men.
Beauty work is defined as various beauty "practices individuals perform on themselves or others to elicit certain benefits from a specific social hierarchy. Although marketers have started to target the "metro-sexual" male and produce hygiene and beauty products geared towards men, the expectations placed on them is less than women. The time and money required for a man to achieve the same well- groomed appearance is much lower.
This phenomenon is called the "pink tax. However, attractiveness varies by society; in ancient China foot binding was practiced by confining young girls' feet in tightly bound shoes to prevent the feet from growing to normal size causing the women to have an attractive "lotus gait".
In England, women used to wear corsets that severely constricted their breathing in order to achieve a visual effect of an exaggeratedly low waist-to-hip ratio. People make judgments of physical attractiveness based on what they see, but also on what they know about the person.
Specifically, perceptions of beauty are malleable such that information about the person's personality traits can influence one's assessment of another person's physical beauty. A study had participants first rate pictures for attractiveness. After doing distracting math problems, participants saw the pictures again, but with information about the person's personality.
Conversely, a person with negative personality characteristics e. This was true for both females and males. A person may be perceived as being more attractive if they are seen as part of a group of friends, rather than alone, according toone study. Physical attractiveness can have various effects. A survey conducted by London Guildhall University of 11, people showed that those who subjectively describe themselves as physically attractive earn more income than others who would describe themselves as less attractive.
According to further research done on the correlation between looks and earnings in men, the punishment for unattractiveness is greater than the benefits of being attractive. However, in women the punishment is found to be equal to the benefits. Another study suggests that more physically attractive people are significantly more likely on average to earn considerably higher wages.
Differences in income due to attractiveness was much more pronounced for men rather than women, and held true for all ranges of income. One writer speculated that "the distress created in women by the spread of unattainable ideals of female beauty" might possibly be linked to increasing incidence of depression.
Many have asserted that certain advantages tend to come to those who are perceived as being more attractive, including the ability to get better jobs and promotions; receiving better treatmentfrom authorities and the legal system; having more choices in romantic or platonic partners and, therefore, more power in relationships; and marrying into families with more money.
Those who are attractive are treated and judged more positively than those who are considered unattractive, even by those who know them. Also, attractive individuals behave more positively than those who are unattractive. One study found that teachers tend to expect that children who are attractive are more intelligent, and are more likely to progress further in school. They also consider these students to be more popular.
Voters choose political candidates who are more attractive over those who are less attractive. Men and women use physical attractiveness as a measure of how "good" another person is. In , Soloman Asch coined the Implicit Personality Theory, meaning that the presence of one trait tends to imply the existence of other traits. This is also known as the halo effect. Research suggests that those who are physically attractive are thought to have more socially desirable personalities and lead better lives in general.
This is also known as the "what-is-beautiful-is-good effect. Some researchers conclude that little difference exists between men and women in terms of sexual behavior. Other researchers disagree. Symmetrical men and women have a tendency to begin to have sexual intercourse at an earlier age, to have more sexual partners, to engage in a wider variety of sexual activities, and to have more one-night stands. They are also prone to infidelity and are more likely to have open relationships.
Additionally, they have the most reproductive success. Therefore, their physical characteristics are most likely to be inherited by future generations. One should know that facial attractiveness plays off of sex differences in facial appearance. The more feminine a woman looks, the more attractive sheis said to be. The difference between male and female pigmentation is a contributing factor in how women appear more attractive. In general, women have lighter colored skin than men.
It is key to be mindful of the contrast of makeup to the skin for women. Makeup assists in emphasizing this contrast of the skin versus the eyes and lips; thus, the women appear more attractive to men. Biological factors can play a large role in how makeup is effective in different societies. One could examine traditional Geisha apprentice cosmetics looks versus typical American teenage girls looks. The traditional Geisha apprentices wore white paint and dark lipstick, while American girls often wear foundation that compliments their skin tones and lightly shaded lip glosses.
Both looks are said to be attractive in different places. It has been found that males approve of prominent cheekbones, large eyes, smooth skin, and small noses. Although a person cannot at least naturally change their facial features, one can enhance them through various techniques, which involve makeup. For example, one can contour their cheekbones to appear more prominent and use eye shadow to enhance the size and shape of her eyes. A study conducted using 16 male and 16 female subjects who judged four females in different makeup combinations.
The women were found significantly more attractive with the makeup on. Interestingly enough, the four women had more positive personality ratings when wearing the makeup as well. An older study was performed in which8 male and 8 female subjects rated 32 college students on whether or not they were more attractive with or without makeup.
The women subjects did not really find the women more attractive with the applied makeup like the men had. One of the most interesting experiments was performed to find out whether women received more tips while wearing makeup. A waitress served two groups of people in total, one hundred and seventy-four people for five days a week for six weeks.
She served sixteen lunches with makeup and fifteen without makeup. After analyzing various components to this experiment, it was confirmed that the times in which the waitress wore makeup, she received a higher tip on average. The manipulation of contrasts with the eyes and lips against skin tone is the key reason makeup affects the attractiveness of a person.
So, how you appear to others is as important as how you really are. Appearance is the first opportunity for you to appeal to others and, in some cases, the only opportunity. Therefore, you should be thoughtful about presenting yourself.
Here are some reasons why well-dressed men are more likely to succeed at work. They feel extra confident about themselves. Well-groomed men feel extra confident about themselves and fully realize their potential and abilities. This is primarily because they know that they are looking their best in terms of their appearance.
Trusting yourself fully to get a job done means almost half of that job is already done. This applies to men at work equally. Confident men have that sense of self-control and killer instinct that sets them apart from others, which helps them perform well in each and every aspect of their work. They radiate a sense of self-esteem. You have to be able to reflect clearly that you completely believe in your abilities.
And, well- groomed men just do that. They glow with a sense of self-esteem about themselves and that helps a lot in their careers. No one likes to trust someone who has doubt in themself. They can make lasting impressions quickly. Careers are really unforgiving. There are so many occasions where you get only a single chance. And at times, those are half-chances only.
Making impressions is very important in business. Appearance is regularly used as the first filter. This puts such men in better positions to succeed at work. Grab My Planner! They augment their physical attractiveness. All of us are more interested in things that are attractive than those that are unattractive. This applies to human relationships as well. Having a proper dress sense helps a lot in being more attractive and appealing.
With their better physical appearance, well-groomed men are more likely to make better impressions and be held in high regards by others. This goes a long way in helping them have a rewarding career. They are more likely to draw positive attention. The ability to gather attention quickly from others is a highly important asset in professional sectors. This helps one start ahead of others and create valuable impacts in their vocation.
Well-groomed men are more likely to create lasting impressions and communicate their ideas better, by drawing and keeping positive attention from others. This puts them in a position of significant competitive advantage over others at work. They are trusted to best represent themselves as well as the organization. Success comes in all kinds of shapes and styles.
However, many executives and organizations in the industry rate dress sense in high regard. Elegantly dressed men are more likely to be trusted to represent the organization in front of clients, associates, and competitors by seniors. Because of the trust put upon them by seniors, well-dressed men have better opportunities to lead the organization and showcase their potentials, facilitating them to move up the organizational ladder more swiftly.
They exhibit better personal hygiene and care. It also means covering yourself in dress that is spotless and that makes you comfortable as well. Men who dress well display a top level of personal hygiene. They demonstrate that they are able to take good care of themselves. This is a very important aspect in any work environment. So, well-groomed men are adored by co-workers and bosses alike—this is a valuable gain at work.
They look and appear more mature. Mature-looking men are much more likely to succeed at work. This is because they have an aura of wisdom about them. They seem to have years of experience under their belts and are better trusted to work in responsible positions within the organization. Well-presented men are at an advantage in this front as well.
With this perfect look, that is the right mix of youthful vigor and seasoned wisdom, well-dressed men are valued highly in an association. They fit better into the organization. Most organizations put great emphasis on proper dress code and value well-groomed employees. With all your fellow workers dressed elegantly, it makes sense to put on the best outfit possible. So appropriate dress sense is helpful for employees to fit in with their organization as well.
Fitting right into an organization is very useful to success. They stand out in the crowd. By virtue of their self-confidence and ability to draw out positive attention from others, well-dressed men stand out in the crowd. This is correct for all occasions and holds true for the office space as well. With fierce competition from all around, from both within the organization as well as outside, there are very few opportunities to make an impact.
And, well-presented men make the best use of every opportunity they get. Well-groomed men make a solid personal statement and announce themselves loudly at the podium. With their matured look and ability to make lasting impressions quickly, they stand an inch apart from others and are at a better position to succeed at work. First impressions are so crucial, especially at business meetings and job interviews where your professional reputation is at stake.
Sure, men have fairly straightforward wardrobe choices compared to women, but their hygiene maintenance can take more effort, depending on certain factors. This includes your beard or moustache as well as ear and nostril hair. If in doubt, just go clean- shaven. Hair styling Go for styling products that keep your hair in shape with a natural look, rather than hair gels or creams that create a greasy look. Outfit choice Make sure your suit or shirt and pants are freshly laundered, neatly pressed and well-coordinated.
Scents Use deodorant to stay fresh and dry, but avoid colognes and strong fragrances. Grooming tips for women 1. Less is more, when your goal is to look professional. Go for fresh, natural colours and keep it simple and light. Stay away from plunging necklines, micro-mini skirts and anything too revealing which might send out the wrong message. For tips on choosing the right colour, check out our colour guide for job interviews.
Accessories should be avoided or kept to a minimum. Scents Just like in the case of the men, use deodorant to stay fresh and dry, but avoid strong perfumes that might be overpowering. I have always enjoyed using makeup, trying out different eye shadow and lip gloss colors. It is quite amazing the power that it has to make cheek bones more prominent or eyes wider. The studies that you found were very interesting and say a lot about society. Women should be regarded as being beautiful naturally without the help of makeup.
However, as mentioned in another comment everyone has his or her own definition of beauty so there cannot be one clear assumption made about makeup. The more feminine a woman looks, the more attractive she is said to be. One study was conducted using 16 male and 16 female subjects who judged four females in different makeup combinations. An older study was performed in which 8 male and 8 female subjects rated 32 college students on whether or not they were more attractive with or without makeup.
This is a very interesting topic you chose to write about. I never knew that men and woman typically had different skin tones. And people can most definitely still be attractive without using makeup. But it helps to paint. Take the ancient Egyptians for example who wore makeup made of lead ore and copper.
Women of the ancient world were often innovative when it came to their cosmetic needs. Berries were used to darkenlips; the ashes of burnt matches were used to darken eyes, and much more. Today, we have developed makeup for practically every application you can think of. From making eyes pop with eye shadow palettes to hiding undesirable pores, makeup has come along way we even have vegan makeup. To truly appreciate where we are today as opposed to where we used to be, let's take a look at the rich history of makeup.
Homemade makeup in the ancient world Women of the ancient world, uneducated about safe beauty practices, often went to extreme lengths for the sake of beauty. Using berries to darken the lips was a safe enough practice. However, some homemade cosmetics involved the use of mercury, lead, arsenic, and leeches to achieve the pale beauty deemed appropriate during those times. It's safe tosay we have long since recognized the need for safe products for our beauty needs and general health.
Makeup during the Victorian era The Victorian era was truly a time where the ladies of Europe began to embrace makeup and cosmetics. Ladies of leisure would often dust on rice powder to hid blotches, redness, and freckles. Zinc oxide and pearl powder was used to create a cosmetic powder that was highly popularized by sophisticated ladies of the time.
An early form of lip balm, clear pomade much like beeswax, was applied to the lips every morning to not only protect against the elements but to also add shine. Eye paint or as we know it, eye shadow, was also a popular choice during the Victorian era though respectable women were very subtle with the amount of eye shadow they used at any given time. It is commonly used to make the wearer's eyes stand out or look more attractive.
A substance known as kohl made by grinding stibnite was used to accentuate the eyes of royalty. In Egyptian culture, kohl allowed the Egyptians to emulate the appearance of their gods. Before long the trend spread to Rome and Greece where women began to wear eyeshadow for the sake of beauty as opposed to religious reasons.
Eventually, eyeshadow spread to India and Babylon where it was largely worn by high class women due to its high price. Fairies sprinkle it. Little girls adore it. Eyeshadow in the modern era In more modern times it's clear that eyeshadow has gone through a great many transformations. Take the roaring 20s where the "smoky" eyeshadow look was highly popular.
In the 30s American women were inundated with a wide variety of colors in their eyeshadows that included greens and soft pinks. Jumping to the 70s various colors of eyeshadow were worn together for a "rainbow" appearance. Today, there are countless eyeshadow colors and finishes. The history of cosmetics spans at least 7, years and is present in almost every society on earth. Cosmetic body art is argued to have been the earliest form of a ritual in human culture.
The evidence for this comes in the form of utilised red mineral pigments red ochre including crayons associated with the emergence of Homo sapiens in Africa. According to one source, early major developments include the use of castor oil in ancient Egypt as a protective balm and skin creams made of beeswax, olive oil and rosewater described by the Romans. The Ancient Greeks also used cosmetics. Cosmetics are mentioned in the Old Testament—2 Kings where Jezebel painted her eyelids— approximately BC—and the book of Esther describes various beauty treatments as well.
Cosmetics were also used in ancient Rome, although much of Roman literature suggests that it was frowned upon. It is known that some women in ancient Rome invented make up including lead-based formulas, to whiten the skin, and kohl was used to line the eyes. The use of cosmetics in Ancient Egypt is well documented. Kohl has its roots in north Africa. Remedies to treat wrinkles containing ingredients such as gum of frankincense and fresh moringa.
For scars and burns, a special ointment was made of red ochre, kohl, and sycamore juice. Jars of what could be compared with setting lotion have been found to contain a mixture of beeswax and resin. These doubled as remedies for problems such as baldness and greying hair. They also used these products on their mummies, because they believed that it would make them irresistible in the after life.
During the early s, makeup was not excessively popular. In fact, women hardly wore makeup at all. Face enamelling applying actual paint to the face became popular among the rich at this time in an attempt to look paler. This practice was dangerous due to the main ingredient often being arsenic. Pale skin was associated with wealth because it meant that one was not out working in the sun and could afford to stay inside all day.
Cosmetics were so unpopular that they could not be bought in department stores; they could only be bought at theatrical costume stores. Rouge was considered provocative, so was only seen on "women of the night.
Vaseline became high in demand because it was used on chapped lips, as a base for hair tonic, and soap. Toilet waters were introduced in the early s, but only lavender water or refined cologne was admissible for women to wear. Cosmetic deodorant was invented in , by an unknown inventor from Philadelphia and was trademarked under the name Mum deodorant. Roll-on deodorant was launched in , and aerosol deodorant in Around , make-up became fashionable in the United States of America and Europe owing to the influence of ballet and theatre stars such as Mathilde Kschessinska and Sarah Bernhardt.
Colored makeup was introduced in Paris upon the arrival of the Russian Ballet in , where ochers and crimsons were the most typical shades. The Daily Mirror beauty book showed that cosmetics were now acceptable for the literate classes to wear. With that said, men often saw rouge as a mark of sex and sin, and rouging was considered an admission of ugliness. In , a Kansas legislature proposed to make it a misdemeanor for women under the age of forty-four to wear cosmetics "for the purpose of creating a false impression.
Eyebrow darkener was also presented in this beauty book, created from gum Arabic, Indian ink, and rosewater. He was able to tattoo on pink blushes, red lips, and dark eyebrows. He also was able to tattoo men disfigured in the First World War by inserting skin tones in damaged faces and by covering scars with colors more pleasing to the eye. Max Factor opened up a professional makeup studio for stage and screen actors in Los Angeles in In the s, the film industry in Hollywood had the most influential impact on cosmetics.
Helena Rubinstein was Bara's makeup artist; she created mascara for the actress, relying on her experiments with kohl. Others who saw the opportunity for the mass- market of cosmetics during this time were Max Factor, Sr. Many of the present day makeup manufacturers were established during the s and s. Lipsticks were one of the most popular cosmetics of this time, more so than rouge and powder, because they were colorful and cheap. In , Maurice Levy invented the metal container for lipstick, which gave license to its mass production.
The Flapper style also influenced the cosmetics of the s, which embraced dark eyes, red lipstick, red nail polish, and the suntan, invented as a fashion statement by Coco Chanel. The eyebrow pencil became vastly popular in the s, in part because it was technologically superior to what it had been, due to a new ingredient: hydrogenated cottonseed oil also the key constituent of another wonder product of that era Crisco Oil. The early commercial mascaras, like Maybelline, were simply pressed cakes containing soap and pigments.
A woman would dip a tiny brush into hot water, rub the bristles on the cake, remove the excess by rolling the brush onto some blotting paper or a sponge, and then apply the mascara as if her eyelashes were a watercolor canvas.
The first patent for a nail polish was granted in Its color was a very faint pink. It's not clear how dark this rose was, but any girl whose nails were tipped in any pink darker than a baby's blush risked gossip about being "fast. In the wake of Chanel's adoption of the suntan, dozens of new faketan products were produced to help both men and women achieve the "sun-kissed" look. In Asia, skin whitening continued to represent the ideal of beauty, as it does to this day.
In the time period after the First World War, there was a boom in cosmetic surgery. During the s and s, facial configuration and social identity dominated a plastic surgeon's world. Face-lifts were performed as early as , but it wasn't until the s when cosmetic surgery was used to reduce the signs of aging. During the twentieth century, cosmetic surgery mainly revolved around women. Men only participated in the practice if they had been disfigured by the war. Silicone implants were introduced in In the s, the American Society of Plastic Surgeons made efforts to increase public awareness about plastic surgery.
As a result, in , the United States Supreme Court granted physicians the legal right to advertise their procedures. The optimistic and simplified nature of narrative advertisements often made the surgeries seem hazard-free, even though they were anything but.
The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery reported that more than two million Americans elected to undergo cosmetic procedures, both surgical and non- surgical, in , liposuction being the most popular. Breast augmentations ranked second, while numbers three, four, and five went to eye surgery, face-lifts, and chemical peels. During the s, numerous African Americans participated in skin bleaching in an attempt to lighten their complexion as well as hair straightening to appear whiter.
Skin bleaches and hair straighteners created fortunes worth millions and accounted for a massive thirty to fifty percent of all advertisements in the black press of the decade. Oftentimes, these bleaches and straighteners were created and marketed by African American women themselves. Skin bleaches contained caustic chemicals such as hydroquinone, which suppressed the production of melanin in the skin. These bleaches could cause severe dermatitis and even death in high dosages.
Many times these regimens were used daily, increasing an individual's risk. In the s, at least 5 companies started producing make-up for African American women. Before the s, makeup shades for Black women were limited.
Face makeup and lipstick did not work for dark skin types because they were created for pale skin tones. These cosmetics that were created for pale skin tones only made dark skin appear grey. Eventually, makeup companies created makeup that worked for richer skin tones, such as foundations and powders that provided a natural match.
From to , during the Second World War, cosmetics were in short supply. Petroleum and alcohol, basic ingredients of many cosmetics, were diverted into war supply. Cosmetic developers realized that the war would result in a phenomenal boom afterwards, so they began preparing. Yardley, Elizabeth Arden, Helena Rubinstein, and the French manufacturing companybecame associated with "quality" after the war because they were the oldest established. Pond's had this same appeal in the lower price range.
Gala cosmetics were one of the first to give its products fantasy names, such as the lipsticks in "lantern red" and "sea coral. In at the feminist Miss America protest, protestors symbolically threw a number of feminine products into a "Freedom Trash Can. Cosmetics in the s were divided into a "natural look" for day and a more sexualized image for evening. Non-allergic makeup appeared when the bare face was in fashion as women becamemore interested in the chemical value of their makeup.
These lipsticks were often mixed with pale pinks and whites, so women could create their own individual shades. This product was applied to the forehead, lower cheeks, and chin. Contouring and highlighting the face with white eye shadow cream also became popular. Avon introduced the lady saleswoman. Like most industries, cosmetic companies resist regulation by government agencies.
In the U. The cosmetic companies are not required to report injuries resulting from use of their products. Concealer is commonly used by cosmetic-conscious men. Cosmetics brands are releasing cosmetic products especially tailored for men, and men are using such products more commonly.
There is some controversy over this, however, as many feel that men who wear make-up are neglecting traditional gender, and do not view men wearing cosmetics in a positive light. Others, however, view this as a sign of ongoing gender equality and feel that men also haverights to enhance their facial features with cosmetics if women could.
Today the market of cosmetics has a different dynamic compared to the 20th century. Some countries are driving this economy: There is an interesting story in the Indian Context: LAKME Way back in the early s, an economic survey of spending in India revealed that Indian women were splurging on imported cosmetics.
Nehru was not very happy because it was affecting the forex reserves. Maintaining the forex reserves was of utmost importance considering the fact that Indian economy was still in its nascent stage. Nehru hit upon the idea of a home grown beauty brand which would cater to cosmetic needs of Indian women. Instead, he took up the issue because it was affecting forex and related to the economy. Banning such products was impossible in a democracy, so starting an Indian company was the only solution.
Nehru knew that only JRD Tata had the passion and entrepreneurship skills to tackle the above challenges and personally requested him to come up with a solution, which he readily accepted. That was the kind of thought process which went into any job which JRD Tata took up and the results were always exemplary.
It was a hugely successful brand and the rest is history. A recent survey ranked Lakme to be one of the top 50 most trusted brands in India. Luckily, there are some little tricks you can use to instantly give your confidence a boost and make yourself appear more attractive to others in the process. Whether it's highlighting one side of your face or switching up the way you walk, looking good has never been so easy.
Here's how to nail the transformation process. Money Moves to Make in Your 50s 1-Wear Red Who knew color could make such a big difference in your level of attractiveness? A study published in the Journal of Experimental Psychology found women loved it when men wore red—and, the same went for women. It's not just clothes, either: another study found red lipstick had the same effect. Just like Shakira always says: hips don't lie.
Experts say sticking to monochromatic color palettes—otherwise known as colors that are the same shade—will make you appear taller. Plus, it looks super classy: You can't go wrong with an all- black look. Whether you're taking pictures or chatting with someone, turn your head slightly to the right to showcase your left and you'll instantly look a little better.
Well done, Barney. A study found people typically look much more attractive when they're in groups than they do on their own. So grab your friends and hit up your favorite hot-spots in packs. After analyzing pictures of women in a study, researchers found those with bold brows appeared younger and more attractive.
Learn how to fill in your brows for a thicker but still natural! According to one expert, there's actually some science behind it. Researcher Vanessa Brown found people tend to look more attractive when wearing dark shades because of a few reasons: they make your face look more symmetrical, it adds a little mystery aka sexiness , and they have a history of being cool, making you look cooler, too.
Basically it's when you move your shoulders up and down as you walk. Not a lot, but just enough to look natural. One study found it's actually long arms that men are super attracted to, so start sporting those sleeveless tops whenever you need a little confidence boost. According to multiple studies yes, multiple! Plus, added bonus: you'll also have an instant new best friend who thinks you're cute no matter what. According to one study, men aren't as into super-skinny, model-thin women as you think; they actually think women with normal body weights are more attractive.
Instead of striving to become stick-thin, own and accentuate what you've got. One study found having an open posture — especially when you're first meeting someone—makes you look more confident and charismatic whether you're male or female.
One review dug into the topic and found it's more appealing to women for one specific reason: it's a super masculine feature that shows genetic strength. While your beard is great and all, you might want to trim it up so your facial structure is a little more prominent. Instead, be confident about the extra weight. Yale researcher Richard Bribiescas found women are super into a little pudginess, meaning those extremely jacked guys don't get to have all the fun.
The reason? One study found it's simply because it makes women appear more feminine, particularly in the way they walk. For example, Allena recommends pairing "high-waisted skinny jeans with a cute crop top or lacy bralette, and [tying] the outfit together with a matching belt. Egbogah says, standing up straight is the first step towards telling others that you're both interested and interesting.
Among other things, it signals "youth," as well as a certain openness and alertness that a hunched-over or slouched back fails to convey. So, if you're hoping to attract a partner, she says, "look up and enjoy the world. According to a study, the stereotype that glasses make people appear less attractive was "confirmed. So, while it's important not to "go overboard" and end up with an "oompa loompa" look, spending a few hours in the sun or lathering with a self-tanning moisturizer can go a long way towards boosting your attractiveness levels.
This, however, isn't exactly true, as women actually prefer men who have "less body fat and appear stronger. Egbogah, "signals virility and fertility," and is a "huge turn-on" for women. In addition to remaining cognizant of this posture when waiting at bus stops and other public locales, she recommends using this pose in pictures for dating apps and other profiles to really catch someone's eye.
Egbogah recommends actively "pull[ing] your shoulders back and out. According to Kenger, when someone looks at people within a group, their brain "averages out the faces," when considering the group's attractiveness. To appear more desirable, then, it helps to be surrounded by others who can help—by their addition—to increase your groups' average attractiveness level, rather than dragging it down.
While it may be part of a larger ensemble, or a symptom of your desire to go back to the '90s, the effect it will have is only to make you appear "stubby" and "without shape. While this should be done subtly—after all, no one likes actively being overtly mimicked—doing so "shows them that you're paying attention" as well as validating them, making you seem more attractive in return. If you've got it, after all, you might as well flaunt it.
Specifically, says Kenger, if you're looking for something "long-term," go with the short beard. As a result, he says, "you'll be perceived as more trustworthy. Particularly, says Kenger, they made wearers appear "more intelligent and trustworthy. Just because everyone else has a pompadour doesn't mean you should, too, and many of those wearing that trendy style would probably be better with a different cut, as well. You wouldn't wear the same shoes as your neighbor, after all, so why have the same haircut?
Christine Carpenter, a psychologist and dating coach at Evolve Dating Consultation, but it's important to pay at least some attention to your grooming and style of dress. At the very least, she says, "look like you put in some effort. In order to appear "strong," says Dr. Carpenter, and attract the gaze of a possible mate, it's important to have you hands at the ready and "available for action. As long as you don't take the opportunity to literally look down your nose at others, she says, the position "exudes a sense of confidence," and "not arrogance.
While violating too many of the rules of attraction will likely end up poorly, ignoring a few here and there in an effort to appear more real can help endear you to others who themselves are likely just as confused as you are. While it's not crucial, as Dr. Carpenter says, to remain "on the cutting edge of the latest trends," that doesn't mean it's okay to non-ironically dress like a character in an '80s movie just because you don't want to go shopping. Carpenter says, to avoid "com[ing] across as lazy and sloppy," and a little effort goes a long way.
To really up your attractiveness, then, it can be helpful to take yourself a bit less seriously, and be able to enjoy a joke or two at your own expense—and maybe even by your own hand. To increase attraction, then, try some bright blush or a colored lipstick—anything that really makes your face pop as compared to plain ole skin. Instead of trying to woo solely by your own merit, try asking questions and learning about what makes them tick.
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